Forests interact with climate, acting as sinks of CO2 when growing and as a source of CO2 when destroyed. As a result of climate change a) new assemblages of species and b) major shifts in the geographic distribution of forest vegetation are expected to occur.

Greece, as part of the Mediterranean Basin, is projected to be among the most vulnerable countries due to the combined effect of high temperature increases and reduced precipitation, in areas already coping with water scarcity. It is therefore quite urgent to adapt forest management in the changing climate in order to enable the conservation of healthy, productive forests, which provide humans with goods and services.

Integrating climate change into forest management requires an understanding of ecological response and vulnerability of key forest ecosystems. Although a clear view of the future climate and forests is not yet available, it is critical to begin developing and implementing adaptation strategies now, well in advance of climate change impacts on the forests.